What is Diabetes ?
As well as fueling your body, glucose also nourishes your brain. Types of diabetes are caused by different factors. However, it can cause excess blood sugar no matter what type of diabetes you have. Your health is at risk when you have high blood sugar levels.
Diabetes type 1 and diabetes type 2 are chronic conditions that require daily care. Diabetes conditions such as gestational diabetes and Prediabetes are potentially reversible. Prediabetes occurs when blood sugar levels rise above normal, but not to the point where it becomes diabetes. Prediabetes is frequently a precursor to diabetes if the appropriate steps aren’t taken to prevent it. During pregnancy, Gestational diabetes occurs, But it often disappears after delivery.
What is the Causes of Diabetes?
It is caused by too much glucose circulating in your bloodstream, regardless of the type. Depending on the type of diabetes, your blood glucose levels may also be high due to other reasons.
Causes of Type 1 Diabetes – This is an immune system disease. In your pancreas, your body attacks and destroys cells that produce insulin. Glucose builds up in your bloodstream if insulin is not present to allow glucose to enter your cells. For some patients, genes are also involved. You may be infected by a virus that triggers your immune system.
Cause of Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes – Insulin doesn’t allow glucose into your body’s cells like it should be able to. As a result, your body’s cells have become resistant to insulin. This resistance makes it impossible for your pancreas to produce enough insulin to overcome it. Therefore, your blood glucose level increases.
Cause of Gestational Diabetes –Placental hormones increase your resistance to insulin during pregnancy. In this case, your pancreas cannot create enough insulin to overcome the resistance. Then the bloodstream becomes overfilled with glucose.
Symptoms of Diabetes
A diabetic’s symptoms will vary according to how high their blood sugar is. Many people with Prediabetes or type 2 diabetes may not experience any symptoms at all. Diabetes type 1 causes rapid onset and severe symptoms.
Type 1 and type 2 Diabetes symptoms include:
- Frequent Urination
- The presence of ketones in the urine (ketones are caused by muscle and fat breakdown in the absence of insulin)
- Excessive hunger
- Increased thirst
- Unexpected weight loss
- Frequent infections, including gum disease, skin infections, and vaginal infections.
- Blurred vision
- Slow-healing sores
During childhood or adolescence, type 1 diabetes can develop, but it can manifest at any age. The common form of diabetes, type 2, can develop at any age, though it is more prevalent in people over 40 years old.
What are the different types of Diabetes?
The types of Diabetes are:
Type 1 Diabetes – Your body attacks itself when you have this type of diabetes. When this happens, your pancreas’ insulin-producing cells are destroyed. Type 1 diabetes affects about 10% of diabetics. Most commonly diagnosed in children and young adults (but can also occur in any age group). It was previously called “juvenile diabetes”. Diabetes Type 1 requires daily insulin injections. This type of diabetes is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes – In this case, either your body does not make enough insulin or your body’s cells do not respond to insulin normally. Most people with diabetes suffer from this disease. There are ninety five percent of people with diabetes who have Type 2. Middle-aged and older people are more likely to suffer from this type of diabetes. Diabetes type 2 is also known as insulin-resistant diabetes or adult-onset diabetes
Prediabetes – It is the condition that precedes Type 2 diabetes. There is an increase in blood glucose levels but not enough to diagnose Type 2 diabetes.
Gestational Diabetes – Pregnant women can develop this type of diabetes. Pregnant women generally recover from this type of diabetes after pregnancy. It is important to know, however, that gestational diabetes puts you at higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later in life.
What are the Risk Factors of Diabetes?
Diabetes risk factors vary based on the type of diabetes.
Risk factors for type 1 Diabetes –
There are several factors that may signal an increased risk of type 1 diabetes, although the exact cause is unknown.
Genetic predisposition – You are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes if you have a parent or sibling with it.
The environment also contributes – The development of type 1 diabetes is likely to be influenced by certain circumstances, such as virus infections.
The presence of harmful immune cells(autoantibodies) – A test for diabetes autoantibodies may sometimes be performed on family members of patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes type 1 is more likely to develop if you have these autoantibodies. It does not develop in everyone who has them.
Geographical Location – Finland and Sweden have higher rates of type 1 diabetes than other countries.
Risk factors for Prediabetes and type 2 Diabetes –
Researchers do not yet understand why people develop type 2 diabetes and prediabetes but others do not. There are certain factors, however, that increase the risk, including:
Weight – As you gain fat, your cells become more resistant to insulin.
Inactivity – Less activity makes you more likely to develop diabetes. Physical activity allows you to burn glucose as energy, control your weight, and increase your sensitivity to insulin.
Family History –You are more likely to develop diabetes if your parent or sibling has the disease.
Age. Growing older increases your risk of developing diabetes. During old age, you tend to exercise less, lose muscle mass, and gain weight. Children and adolescents are also at risk for diabetes type 2.
Diabetes During Pregnancy – When you develop gestational diabetes while pregnant, you are more likely to develop Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. You’re also at risk for type 2 diabetes if your baby weighs more than 9 pounds (4 kilograms).
High blood Pressure – Over 140/90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes.
Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes –
Women can develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy – For some women, the risk is higher than for others. Gestational diabetes is associated with the following factors:
Age – Gestational diabetes is more likely to occur in women over 25.
Genetics – The risk of type 2 diabetes increases if you have Prediabetes or if a close family member has the disease, such as a parent or sibling. Having gestational diabetes during a previous pregnancy, delivering a very large baby or having an unexplained stillbirth will also increase your risk.
Weight – If you’re overweight before pregnancy, your risk increases.
Diabetes in Pregnancy –
Diabetes can suddenly develop in pregnant women without any previous history of the condition. Your body may become more resistant to insulin due to hormones produced by the placenta. Diabetic women can carry it into pregnancy if they had it before they conceived. This is known as pre-gestational diabetes. After delivery, gestational diabetes should vanish, but it does significantly increase your risk for getting diabetes later in life.
According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), approximately half of women with gestational diabetes will develop type 2 diabetes within five or ten years after giving birth. In addition to complications for your unborn child, diabetes during pregnancy can also cause jaundice or breathing problems. Pre-gestational and gestational diabetes require special monitoring to prevent complications.
Prevention of Diabetes –
It is impossible to prevent Type 1 diabetes. Although healthy lifestyle choices can prevent Prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes, they can also help treat them:
Make healthy food choices – Eat lower fat, higher fiber, and lower calorie foods. Make sure you eat fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat products. Try to avoid boredom by eating a variety.
Exercise regularly – Try to get 30 minutes of moderate activity most days of the week, or 150 minutes at least a week.
Reduce your weight – If you weigh 200 pounds (90.7 kilograms), losing even 7% of your body weight – for example, 14 pounds (6.4 kilograms) – can reduce your diabetes risk.
But you shouldn’t lose weight during Pregnancy – During pregnancy, you should discuss how much weight you should gain with your doctor.
Maintain a healthy weight by making permanent changes to your eating and exercise Habits – Remember all the benefits of weight loss, like a healthier heart, increased energy, and better self-esteem.
Medications may also be helpful – In addition to oral diabetes drugs like metformin (Glumetza, Fortamet), healthy lifestyle choices are still important. Make sure you have your blood sugar checked every year to ensure that you haven’t developed type 2 diabetes.
Who should be Tested for Diabetes?
People with diabetes symptoms and those with risk factors should be tested. Diabetes can be managed and complications can be minimized or prevented earlier when diagnosed. A blood test can show that you have Prediabetes, which can be managed by making lifestyle changes (e.g. losing weight, getting active, eating well) to prevent or delay the development of Type 2 diabetes.
Here are some additional specific testing recommendations based on the risk factors:
Testing for Type 1 Diabetes – Children and young adults with a family history of diabetes should be tested. Although less common, Type 1 diabetes can also affect older adults. Therefore, it is important to test adults diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis when they come to the hospital. In people with Type 1 diabetes, ketoacidosis can be a life-threatening complication.
Testing for Type 2 Diabetes – A diabetes test is recommended for adults over 45, women with gestational diabetes, and children ages 10 to 18 who are overweight and have at least two risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
Testing for Gestational Diabetes – Test all pregnant women who have been diagnosed with diabetes. Every pregnant woman should be tested between weeks 24 and 28 of her pregnancy. Your obstetrician may test you earlier if you have other risk factors for gestational diabetes.