High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)- Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Prevention and more

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)- Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Prevention

What is High Blood Pressure?

The increased pressure over time can lead to health issues, such as heart disease. Many of people suffer from High blood pressure. It has been estimated that almost half of American adults have this condition since the guidelines changed in 2017.

High blood pressure usually develops slowly over time. Symptoms don’t typically appear right away. The brain, eyes, heart, and kidneys, among others, can suffer damage even without symptoms associated with high BP. Hypertension can be treated with prescription medication as well as healthy lifestyle changes. If the condition isn’t treated, it could cause serious health problems, such as heart attacks and strokes.

What is The Causes High Blood Pressure?

Hypertension can be classified into two types. There are different reasons for each type.

Essential (primary) Hypertension –

The condition is also known as primary hypertension. Usually, this type of hypertension develops slowly over time. The majority of people suffer from it.

Essential Hypertension is Typically Caused by a Combination of Factors:

Genes  Genetic predisposition to hypertension may exist in some people. The cause may be a mutation in your genes or a genetic abnormality inherited from your parents.

Age – People over 65 years of age are more likely to develop hypertension.

Race  Non-Hispanic Black individuals have a higher incidence of hypertension than other ethnic groups.

Living with obesity – Obesity is associated with several cardiac issues, including hypertension.

High alcohol consumption  Women who regularly consume more than one drink per day, and men who consume more than two drinks per day, may develop hypertension.

Living a very seditary lifestyle  Hypertension has been associated with low levels of fitness.

Living with diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome – People suffering from either diabetes or metabolic syndrome are at an increased risk of developing hypertension.

High sodium intake – Daily consumption of more than 1.5g sodium a day is associated with hypertension.

Secondary  Hypertension –

Hypertension secondary to primary hypertension often occurs quickly and becomes more severe. Secondary hypertension can be caused by several conditions, including.

  • kidney problems.
  • Obstructive sleep apnea.
  • Heart defects.
  • Thyroid issues.
  • Medicine side effects.
  • Abuse of illegal drugs.
  • Consistent alcohol consumption.
  • adrenal gland problems.
  • tumors of the endocrine system.

What are The Symptoms of High BP?

Hypertension is generally a silent disease. Most people don’t experience any symptoms. Symptoms may not become apparent until the condition becomes severe enough to be obvious. Then, they may be associated with other factors.

Signs and symptoms of hypertension include:

  • Flushing
  • Blood spots in the eyes (subconjunctival hemorrhage)
  • Dizziness

A recent study by the American Heart Association Trusted Source indicates that severe hypertension doesn’t usually result in nosebleeds or headaches unless someone is in a hypertensive crisis.

Regular blood pressure readings are the best way to determine if you have hypertension. You are likely to be tested for hypertension at every physician’s appointment. Talk with your doctor about your hypertension risks and any additional readings you need to monitor your blood pressure if you only have a yearly physical.

If you are at risk for developing heart disease or have a family history of the condition, your doctor may recommend that you have your BP checked twice a year. Having a regular check-up helps you and your doctor stay on top of any potential issues before they turn into problems.

Why is High BP a Problem?

Hypertension (High BP) increases the risk for future health problems. You may suffer some damage to your blood vessels (arteries) if you have high blood pressure over time. High blood pressure is generally associated with higher health risks.

A big health risk is cardiovascular disease. Heart (cardiac muscle) and vasculature (blood vessels) diseases are called cardiovascular diseases. Heart or blood vessel diseases caused by atheroma are often referred to as atheroma. The lining of the blood vessels (arteries) is covered in patches of atheroma, which are fatty lumps. As a result of the hardening of the arteries, atheroma is also known as atherosclerosis.

The following cardiovascular diseases can be caused by atheroma:

  • Heart attack.
  • Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA).
  • Peripheral arterial disease.

The following people are more likely to have High Blood Pressure:

Diabetes patients. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are both associated with high blood pressure. High blood pressure is more common in people with type 2 diabetes.

  • People of African and Caribbean descent.
  • Natives of the Indian subcontinent.
  • Family history of hypertension.

High BP associated with certain lifestyle factors. These include:

  • Consume a lot of salt.
  • Not enough exercise.
  • Drink too much alcohol.
  • Too much stress.

Blood pressure List

Based on the American Heart Association’s Trusted Source (AHA), the chart below shows measures for normal and high BP. The blood pressure of a person is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). In a blood pressure reading, the systolic pressure shows how much pressure is in the arteries when the heart contracts. Diastolic, which is the lower number, represents the blood pressure between each heartbeat.

Systolic (mm Hg) Diastolic (mm Hg)
Normal               Below 120 Below 80
Elevated (hypertension) 120–129 Below 80
Stage 1 hypertension 130–139 80–90
Stage 2 hypertension 140 or above 90 or above
Hypertensive crisis Over 180 Over 120

How to Reduce High Blood Pressure at Home !!

Controlling hypertension can be achieved by making healthy lifestyle changes. Consider the following suggestions.

Developing a heart-healthy diet – High blood pressure can be reduced with a heart-healthy diet. Additionally, it reduces the risk of complications associated with hypertension that is in control. Such complications include heart attacks, strokes, and heart diseases.

Eat a heart-healthy diet –

  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Whole grains.
  • Fish as a protein source.
  • Be more active.

Exercise can also help lower BP naturally, as well as strengthen your cardiovascular system and help you lose weight (if your doctor recommends it). Every week, try to get 150 minutes of moderate physical activity. You should do this five times a week for 30 minutes each.

Maintaining a healthy weight –Moderate weight loss combined with a heart-healthy diet and increased physical activity can help you lower your blood pressure.

Managing Stress – Exercise can help you manage your stress. You can also engage in other activities. Here are some suggestions:

  • Meditation
  • Deep breathing
  • Massage
  • Muscle Relaxation
  • Yoga.
  • Get enough sleep may also help to reduce stress.

Stop smoking and limit alcohol consumption – Smokers with high blood pressure will most likely be advised to quit the habit by their doctors. Cigarette smoke contains chemicals that damage the body’s tissues and harden the walls of blood vessels. Having too much alcohol will raise your BP.

Healthy habits to reduce hypertension risks – If you are at risk for hypertension, you can take steps to reduce your chances of experiencing the condition and its complications.

Add Fruits and Vegetables to your Diet – Try to eat seven or more servings of fruits and vegetables every day.

Limit Refined Sugar – Avoid eating sugar-sweetened foods, like flavored yogurts, cereals, and sodas, on a regular basis. Packaged foods often contain hidden sugars, so make sure to read labels.

Avoid too much sodium – Hypertensive people and those at risk for heart disease may need to make sure they consume no more than 1,500 milligrams of sodium a day Trusted Source.

Aim for weight loss –  You should discuss a weight loss goal with your doctor if he or she has recommended you lose weight.

Maintain a regular blood pressure check – Recognizing hypertension early will help you avoid complications.

Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure has many risk factors, including:

Age – Age is a risk factor for high blood pressure. High blood pressure is more common in men before the age of 64. It occurs more frequently in women after 65.

Family history – People with high blood pressure tend to have relatives with the condition.

Excess weight – Your body requires more blood to provide oxygen and nutrients to its tissues as you gain weight. As your blood flow increases, your artery walls are put under increased pressure.

Inactivity – People who are inactive have a higher heart rate. Higher heart rate means harder contractions for your heart, and stronger pressure on your arteries. Inactivity can also make you fat.

Smoking –  Tobacco’s chemicals not only temporarily raise your blood pressure, but also damage the lining of your arteries. As a result, your arteries can narrow and increase your risk of heart disease. Furthermore, secondhand smoke also contributes to heart disease.

Eating too much salt (sodium) You may experience high blood pressure if you consume too much sodium in your diet.

Consuming too much Alcohol – Alcohol consumption over the long term may result in heart problems. Drinking more than one drink per day for women or more than two drinks per day for men may affect your blood pressure.

Stress – High levels of stress can temporarily raise your blood pressure. Further increases in blood pressure can be caused by stress-related habits such as eating more, using tobacco or drinking alcohol.

Chronic illnesses – High blood pressure may also be caused by chronic conditions like kidney disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea.

Pregnancy may also contribute to high blood pressure.

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